IMAGE: CNS photo/Tyler OrsburnBy Carol ZimmermannWASHINGTON (CNS) -- The executive director of the U.S.
bishops' Migration and Refugee Services gives credit to a group of moderate Republicans
in Congress trying to revive interest in Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
legislation, or DACA, by their efforts to bring not just one bill, but four, to
the House floor.
are surfacing the issue forcefully and making the House deal with it,"
said William Canny. Although
he believes the bills could bring about a "path forward," he said he is
not fully convinced it will happen because of the extent of anti-immigrant sentiment
in Congress and the White House.A current
proposal, led by Reps. JeffDenham, R- California, and Will Hurd,
R-Texas, along with members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, is tapping
into an obscure House rule called "queen of the hill" which would bring
four immigration bills to the House floor for a vote and the bill with the most
votes would pass.
Congress to even consider these multiple bills, there needs to be enough signatures
on a discharge petition. As of May 21, 20 Republicans and 176 Democrats have
signed the petition, which needs signatures from 25 Republicans and all 193
If the "queen
of the hill" procedure gets the go-ahead, there will be debate on each of
the four bills in the course of one day, followed by votes. Another technicality
of this procedure is that discharged bills can only be brought to the House
floor on the second and fourth Monday of each month, when the House is in
session, which narrows the window for this to happen to June 25 and July 23.
meantime, it's a waiting game, Canny told Catholic News Service.
the U.S. bishops want Congress to help Dreamers find a path to stay in this country
and become citizens "without the fear and stress" they currently live
with daily. He also called it "tragic" that DACA recipients -- who
have been here since childhood and have been educated here -- are currently left
"to the whims of various courts."
Trump announced last September that he was terminating DACA, he asked Congress
to pass a permanent legislative solution for DACA participants. His March 5
deadline has passed and now the DACA battle is in the courts with multiple
lawsuits challenging Trump's decision and seven states filing a lawsuit to try
to end DACA.
four DACA bills that could come up for vote are: Securing America's Future Act, also known as Goodlatte
Bill, written by Rep. Bob Goodlatte, R-Virginia; the DREAM Act; the Uniting and
Securing America Act (USA) Act; and a fourth bill that will be chosen by House
Speaker Paul Ryan, R-Wisconsin.
Bill would grant temporary status for DACA recipients with renewable three-year
visas and would include stronger border enforcement and legal immigration
restrictions. The DREAM Act primarily offers a path to citizenship for DACA
recipients and other Dreamers. The USA Act, sponsored by Reps. Denham and Pete
Aguilar, D-California, would grant permanent legal status to qualified Dreamers
and border improvements.
four bills do not come up for House vote, Securing America's Future Act could
come to a floor vote in mid-June but it is said to have little chance of
passing in its current form.
said the U.S. bishops have supported the DREAM Act and the USA Act, which have
narrow immigration reform, but they are against the restrictions within the Goodlatte
Bill, and of course they don't know what Ryan bill would look like.
California bishops placed an ad in a local newspaper May 18 asking House
Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, R-California, to allow a debate and a vote on
DACA, specifically the USA Act. The ad, in the form of a letter, urged McCarthy
to recognize: "The time to act is now. We have to do what we can to
protect these blameless people who were brought into our country when they were
only small children."
April, the chairman of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Migration, Bishop Joe S. Vasquez
of Austin Texas, stressed his support for USA Act, saying he hoped Congress
would "find a humane legislative solution for Dreamers."
the USA Act would provide qualifying Dreamers with protection from deportation
and give them a path to citizenship while also augmenting border security at
the U.S./Mexico border, increasing the number of immigration judges and Board
of Immigration Appeals staff attorneys.
21 editorial in The Los Angeles Times by Denham, said: "Immigration policy
is the responsibility of Congress, and this may be our last chance for a
legislative fix before DACA recipients' lives are upended; if we leave DACA in
the courts to languish (or be dismantled) and fail to act in Congress, then program
recipients will be left in limbo or, worse, deported to a 'home' they never
- - -Follow
Zimmermann on Twitter: @carolmaczim - - -Copyright © 2018 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. www.catholicnews.com. All rights reserved. Republishing or redistributing of CNS content, including by framing or similar means without prior permission, is prohibited. You may link to stories on our public site. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To request permission for republishing or redistributing of CNS content, please contact permissions at email@example.com.
IMAGE: CNS/Paul HaringBy Cindy WoodenVATICAN CITY (CNS) -- Although it is not unusual for a pope
to set aside temporarily the limit of 120 cardinals under the age of 80, Pope
Francis has done so in a way that could last for more than a year.
The pope announced May 20 that he would create 14 news
cardinals June 29; 11 of them are under the age of 80 and would be eligible to
enter a conclave to elect a new pope.
In early June, Cardinal Angelo Amato will celebrate his 80th
birthday, which will drop the number of electors to 114. Three weeks later, the
batch of new cardinals will raise the number of potential electors to 125.
Cardinal Amato is the last cardinal to turn 80 in 2018. And
it will take until July 31, 2019, for another five cardinals to age out.
Confirming the limit of 120 electors set by Blessed Paul VI,
St. John Paul II wrote in "Universi Dominici Gregis," his rules for a
conclave, that "the maximum number of cardinal electors must not exceed 120."
That led one major news agency to report, "If a
conclave has to be called before any other cardinal turns 80, the electors
would have to draw lots to see which five men would be barred from the
Conclaves don't happen that often and none in recent history
took place when there were more than 120 eligible electors. But the idea of a
lottery for entrance into the Sistine Chapel, where the voting would take
place, led many people to scratch their heads.
After all, "Universi Dominici Gregis" and the changes
made to it by Pope Benedict XVI in 2013 both strongly state: "No cardinal
elector can be excluded from active or passive voice in the election of the supreme
A pope, as the supreme legislator of the Catholic Church, can set aside the limit of 120 potential electors. But doing so does not change the no-exclusion clause.
And while a year may be a long time to exceed the 120 limit,
exceeding it by five cardinals is minor compared to what St. John Paul II did
in February 2001. Creating 44 new cardinals -- the biggest batch ever at one
consistory -- the pope raised the number of cardinal electors to 135.
St. John Paul created another 30 cardinals in 2003, bringing
the number of electors back up to 135 once again. But, by the time he died in
2005, only 117 were under 80, and two of those were too ill to participate in
the conclave that elected Pope Benedict.
The Polish pope's mega-consistories broadly expanded the international
-- in other words, the catholic -- identity of the College of Cardinals. It is
a process that continues.
Pope Francis' latest cardinals-designate include churchmen
from five countries not currently represented in the College of Cardinals. But
each of those countries -- Bolivia, Pakistan, Japan, Madagascar and Iraq -- has
had a cardinal in the recent past.
With the addition of the new cardinals, the group of electors
will represent 67 nations. The cardinals who elected Pope Francis in 2013 came
from 48 countries.
The number of Italians with a red biretta, the cardinal's
three-cornered hat, still far exceeds those of any other nation, and Pope
Francis is about to add three more to their number.
The day before the consistory, 18 Italians would be eligible
to enter a conclave -- 19 if you count Cardinal Mario Zenari, the Italy-born
nuncio to Syria, who Pope Francis made clear was chosen to represent Syria. Still,
in the 2013 conclave that elected Pope Francis, 28 were Italian.
The country with the next-highest number of cardinal
electors is the United States, which has 10 cardinals under the age of 80.
At a Mass with the College of Cardinals in 2017, a Mass
marking his 25th anniversary as a bishop, Pope Francis said that the Catholic
Church is not a "gerontocracy" ruled by old men; "we aren't old
men, we are grandfathers."
But his choices for the June consistory do very little to
lower the average age of the group of electors. Only one, Cardinal-designate Konrad
Krajewski, the papal almoner, is still in his 50s. He is 54. Cardinal Dieudonne
Nzapalainga of Bangui, Central African Republic, is 51 years old and still will
be the youngest cardinal once the consistory is over.
On June 28, there will be 114 electors with an average age of
71 years, 11 months and one day. After the consistory the next day, there will
be 125 electors with an average age of 71 years, eight months and 20 days.
The cardinals who elected 58-year-old Cardinal Karol Wojtyla
-- St. John Paul II -- in 1978 had an average age of 67.
- - -
Follow Wooden on Twitter: @Cindy_Wooden- - -Copyright © 2018 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. www.catholicnews.com. All rights reserved. Republishing or redistributing of CNS content, including by framing or similar means without prior permission, is prohibited. You may link to stories on our public site. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To request permission for republishing or redistributing of CNS content, please contact permissions at firstname.lastname@example.org.
IMAGE: CNS photo/Jonathan Bachman, ReutersBy HOUSTON (CNS) -- In response to the May 18 school shooting at
a Houston-area high school, Cardinal Daniel N. DiNardo of Galveston-Houston said the archdiocesan community would "unite to support and
offer healing to those affected."
a society, we must strive for a way to end such acts of senseless gun violence
in our schools and communities," he added in a May 18 statement.
cardinal said he was "deeply saddened" and that his prayer and the
prayers of Catholics in the archdiocese are with the "victims and families
of those killed and injured in this horrific tragedy."In a separate statement as president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, Cardinal DiNardo said: "Our community and
our local church joins an ever-growing list of those impacted by the evil of
gun violence. I extend my heartfelt prayers, along with my brother bishops, for
all of those who have died, their families and friends, those who were injured,
and for our local community."
school shooting, occurring just three months after the shooting in Parkland,
Florida, took place when a male shooter opened fire at a Santa Fe High School the morning
of May 18 killing 10 -- eight students and two teachers -- and injuring another 13 people. A suspect taken into custody was identified as 17-year
old Dimitrios Pagourtzis and another person of interest also was detained
and questioned. Explosive
devices also were found at the school and off campus. At a late-afternoon hearing May 18 before a magistrate judge, Pagourtzis acknowledged that he understood the murder charges against him and was ordered held without bond. Authorities offered no motive for the shootings.
was the deadliest in Texas since a gunman attacked a rural church late last
year, killing more than two dozen people."Sadly, I must yet
again point out the obvious brokenness in our culture and society, such that
children who went to school this morning to learn and teachers who went to
inspire them will not come home," Cardinal DiNardo said in his statement at USCCB president. "We as a nation must, here and now, say
definitively: no more death!"He prayed that "the Lord of life" would be "with us in our sorrow and show us how to honor the precious gift of life
and live in peace.""We
experienced an unthinkable tragedy at our high school this morning,"
Santa Fe Superintendent Leigh Wall said in a message posted to Facebook.
soon as the alarms went off, everybody just started running outside,"
10th-grader Dakota Shrader told reporters, "and next thing you know
everybody looks, and you hear boom, boom, boom, and I just ran as fast as I
could to the nearest floor so I could hide, and I called my mom."
student told CBS News he ran behind some trees, heard more shots, jumped a
fence and ran to a car wash. He said he saw firefighters treat a girl who had a
bandage around her knee and may have been shot.
Michael F. Burbidge of Arlington, Virginia, said in a May 18 tweet: "Please
keep the victims of the Houston-area school shooting in your prayers. Pray also
for their family members and friends who now begin a tragic grieving process.
For those killed, grant eternal rest unto them, O Lord, and bestow grace and
strength to all in their community." Texas Gov. Greg Abbott called the assault "one of the most heinous attacks that we've ever seen in the history of Texas schools." He called for a statewide moment of silence the morning of May 21 and announced a series of roundtable discussions to be held about school safety and ending school shootings.White cross with the names of those shot at the Santa Fe school have been put up along a memorial outside the school. Churchgoers offered prayers for the shooting victims at Sunday services May 20.- - -Copyright © 2018 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. www.catholicnews.com. All rights reserved. Republishing or redistributing of CNS content, including by framing or similar means without prior permission, is prohibited. You may link to stories on our public site. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To request permission for republishing or redistributing of CNS content, please contact permissions at email@example.com.
IMAGE: CNS photo/Jaclyn Lippelmann, Catholic StandardBy Norma Montenegro FlynnWASHINGTON (CNS) -- The Catholic
Church needs to walk with and accompany Hispanic and immigrant families, reach
out to youth and young adults, and strengthen faith and leadership formation.
These were the recurring themes
voiced by participants of the episcopal Region IV encuentro held May 19, at The
Catholic University of America in Washington.
As part of the National Fifth
Encuentro process, nearly 100 regional participants -- lay and religious
leaders from seven dioceses -- from Delaware, Maryland, the District of
Columbia, Virginia and West Virginia, gathered for the day to "encounter," as
the word "encuentro" suggests, each other and listen to the voices from parish
communities and organizations within the region.
They discerned priorities and strategies
on Hispanic ministry and how to better answer Pope Francis' call to become
missionary disciples reaching out to those on the peripheries.
"It's important for us to get to
know the drama, the anxieties of our people to bring the peaceful presence of
Jesus Christ into their lives," said Auxiliary Bishop Mario E. Dorsonville of
Washington and lead bishop for the Region IV encuentro.
"We have to be able to speak the
same language from soul to soul in order to be able to connect them," he said
in an interview with Catholic News Service, noting that such accompaniment
doesn't change through the years.
Participants sharing in small
groups and at-large, widely spoke about the ways Hispanic families need the
Catholic church community to accompany them in their struggles, their desire
for a better and more accessible faith formation, on outreach to youth and
young adults, on family values and on keeping families together.
In a region with high numbers of
recent immigrants, Central Americans who were Temporary Protected Status recipients
and others covered by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA,
many voiced fears of deportation that breaks families apart.
TPS was recently terminated by the
Department of Homeland Security leaving over 300,000 Salvadorans, Hondurans,
Nicaraguans and Haitians facing possible deportations. About 690,000 DACA
recipients are in a similar immigration limbo.
"Over and over, we saw that
specially youth are feeling overwhelmed with the many stresses that they have,
stresses because of immigration issues that affect them directly, especially
those with DACA, those under TPS, and those whose parents, relatives or friends
are undocumented," said Lia Salinas, director of Hispanic ministry for the
Archdiocese of Baltimore and Region VI encuentro co-chair. "That is a voice
that needs to be heard and that needs to be addressed."
Proposed strategies to accompany
families include: nurturing families through each stage, helping families integrate
into their communities and following up with pastoral care. They also proposed
to provide support for families who suffer separation and be involved in
As part of advocacy efforts,
many participants signed letters to their senators seeking a legislative
solution for TPS recipients. The letters are part of the Catholics Confront
Global Poverty initiative led by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops and
Catholic Relief Services.
Throughout the day, participants
shared priorities and strategies in the ministerial areas of evangelization and
mission; vocations and leadership development; youth and young adult ministry;
family ministry; immigration and social justice; faith formation and catechesis;
intercultural competencies, stewardship and development; and Hispanics and
public and professional life.
Priorities across the different
areas of work included: the need to prepare catechists, priests, deacons and
lay leaders to be multilingual and multicultural to reflect the universal
church, placing greater emphasis on cultural integration and competencies.
"We have to develop the
competencies, they're very important, but I just want to stress the importance
of developing an open heart," noted Archbishop William E. Lori of Baltimore to
participants. He noted that although more needs to be done in the different areas,
the church is headed down the right path.
Other priorities addressed were:
finding ways to strengthen Hispanic ministry by strengthening the formation of
Hispanic leaders; making available training in Spanish and scholarships to
assist those who want to further their formation but lack the resources to do
it; supporting and build up leaders, particularly among youth and young adults;
access to Catholic education for youth, and providing a greater support for families,
single parents and women.
In the afternoon, a group of
bishops or their representatives joined the small group conversations and later
exchanged views and answered questions with the participants.
We're called to proclaim and
live the joy of the Gospel, we come here today very much aware of the real
struggles that so many immigrants, people, families experience in their lives,
and struggles are difficult," said Father Thomas Ferguson, vicar general of the
Diocese of Arlington, who represented Bishop Michael Burbidge. "But even in the
midst of carrying the cross or embracing the struggle and the sorrow and the
suffering, it is radiated in this room joy, because we've been called by Jesus
to carry out his work."
Other panel participants were: Archbishop
Lori; Bishop Dorsonville, Baltimore Auxiliary Bishop Mark E. Brennan and Msgr.
John J.M. Foster, vicar general for the U.S. Archdiocese for the Military
Services, representing Archbishop Timothy P. Broglio.
Episcopal Region IV includes the
dioceses of Arlington and Richmond, Virginia; Wilmington, Delaware;
Wheeling-Charleston, West Virginia; and the Washington and Baltimore archdioceses;
and the U.S. military archdiocese.
Participants came from all walks
of life including immigrants and nonimmigrants; ministry leaders from city,
suburbs and rural communities; and leaders of Catholic ecclesial movements,
organizations and institutions.
"We want to in some way continue
the encuentro process in the parishes and the diocesan teams to prepare and
ignite that fire that it's still there," said Gabriel Garza, a delegate in the
Archdiocese of Washington, voicing the desire of many to continue being engaged
in the process of leadership, consultation and discernment that the Fifth
Encuentro has begun.
Military spouses and active duty
members stationed in Japan, Italy, Hawaii and the eastern and western U.S.,
also participated in the meeting as part of the delegation representing the U.S.
military archdiocese, which is based in Washington.
The military archdiocese facilitated
access to the encuentro process for Catholics in the military services who
wished to participate.
Zack Mackeller is a senior
airman in the Air Force and became involved after attending a Catholic
conference in Chicago. He represents the voices of young Catholics in the military
and embraces the call to be a missionary disciple.
"I try to engage people as they
are, where they're at. Just that very
basic, person to person connection, that's really all you can do. Then the Holy
Spirit will unite people in its own way," he said.
Recommendations will be included
in a final report, which will form part of the working document for the National
Fifth Encuentro, or V Encuentro, to be held in Grapevine, Texas, Sept. 20-24.
The Region IV participants will
be part of over 3,000 delegates from across the country who are expected to
convene during those four days to discern priorities and develop strategies for
the "Pastoral Hispana," or Hispanic ministry, in the United States, including
seeking ways to better respond to the call to be missionary disciples.
"Evangelizacion y alegria," or evangelization
and joy, were the two words of encouragement that captured what Archbishop Lori
wished for the delegates who will attend the National Fifth Encuentro.
The day concluded with a sending-off
Mass at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, with
Washington Cardinal Donald W. Wuerl presiding and Bishop Burbidge, Archbishop
Lori and Bishop Dorsonville concelebrating. - - -Copyright © 2018 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. www.catholicnews.com. All rights reserved. Republishing or redistributing of CNS content, including by framing or similar means without prior permission, is prohibited. You may link to stories on our public site. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To request permission for republishing or redistributing of CNS content, please contact permissions at firstname.lastname@example.org.
IMAGE: CNS photo/Chaz MuthBy Carol ZimmermannWASHINGTON (CNS) -- A group of current Trinity Washington University graduates are proud of what they've accomplished but also very anxious
about the future.
could ring true for almost any graduate, but for this group of 21 graduating Dreamers
-- among the hundreds of thousands in the U.S. protected, for now, by the
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA -- these feelings are
even more intense.
because many of these students who came to the United States as children when
their parents immigrated here without documentation, never imagined they would be
able to afford to go to college or graduate in four years. And now, like other
graduates across the country, they worry about financing grad school or getting
good jobs all while fearing the worst: possible deportation for themselves or
their family members as immigration laws remain in flux.
these Dreamer graduates who spoke to Catholic News Service May 10 -- in between finishing
final exams and awaiting their May 19 graduation ceremony -- asked that their last
names or the states where they came from not be used to protect their families. They are among the 20 DACA recipients who started at Trinity four years ago and
the first group of Dreamers to graduate from the school. The term "Dreamer" is
coined from the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act, or
DREAM Act. One student from the initial group left Trinity and two others
joined later as transfer students. The students were among 100 Dreamers who
attended the university this year.
these students are recipients of scholarships from TheDream.US, a scholarship
program for DACA students that partners with colleges. Trinity was the first
Catholic college to partner with the program when it started in 2014 and two other
Catholic colleges have since joined: Dominican University, just outside
Chicago, and Arrupe College of Loyola University Chicago.
who came to the United States from Mexico with her family when she was 6, said she will probably cry when she gets her diploma mainly because when
she was a senior in high school, she didn't think she'd be able to even go to
college, let alone finish in four years.
said her mom found out about scholarship program and urged her to apply, but
Brenda was skeptical because as she put it: "No one even knew about
Dreamers" or DACA four years ago. Which means they didn't know immigrants
without documentation don't have access to Pell grants, federal education loans
or work-study programs and that many of them have to pay out-of-state tuition to
go to college in their home states.
who is graduating with a double major in business and international affairs, said
she wants to get her master's and doctorate degrees, but she knows it won't be
will be a challenge. I might have to work even harder to get financial support
to figure out how I'm going to get there, but I will," she said with the
confidence of someone who has already worked pretty hard.
disputes a misconception that DACA students are just looking for handouts,
noting that everything she and fellow Dreamer students have attained is through hard
work. The scholarship program, for example, is only for top academic students.
competing for a spot and what we do has to be two, three, four and five times better than
everyone else," she said. "We have to earn it."
a graduating senior majoring in biochemistry with a minor in math, similarly stressed
the pressure to work hard and the weight of not knowing what the future holds.
22-year-old who came to the United States from Mexico with her mother and
sister when she was 8, said: "Sometimes I feel like there really is no
choice for me, no path, but then I stop and think about my family, my friends
and I just keep going because that's the only thing I can do."
days before graduating, she kept her eyes on the ceremony itself. "I feel
that is a win -- no matter what -- that is definitely a win," she said.
focus on the fact that her mom won't be able to attend her graduation. Yarely
is used to having to face challenges on her own. Like Brenda, she didn't do
college tours nor did family members help her move in. She simply came to
Trinity on her first airplane ride, moved on campus and got to work, literally,
holding down two jobs as a student, often tutoring both college and high school
unknown for her now is the future of DACA, saying she needs it to work and to
keep going to school, which she hopes will eventually be medical school. "Not
knowing if I am going to even be able to finance that it is definitely something
that makes me really scared; it makes me terrified," she said.
year for these students has been a particular roller coaster starting last
September when the Trump administration announced the
government was terminating DACA. Multiple lawsuits have since challenged that decision
and a recent court ruling issued an order to strike down the end to DACA and
reinstate the original program while still giving the government 90 days to explain
its decision. In early May, seven states filed a lawsuit to try to end DACA.
and Brenda have seen both sides of the immigration battle. Neither of them are immune
to anti-immigrant rhetoric, but they also are grateful for support from their
families, teachers and administrators at Trinity, the scholarship program and
the Catholic Church at large.
said she has had nightmares of "being out on the streets and people yelling
to me and to my family, just yelling things that I know aren't true," but
she also said there are "so many great people out there. ... I know people
who yell or say incredibly hurtful things are the minority so I feel like that
helps me get into perspective that America is not that way; America is not
place of hate and ugliness."
said she is thankful "for all those who have seen there's a gap, there's injustice
leaving us out of opportunities just because of our status." She has hope
from those who advocate on behalf of immigrants, especially the Catholic
Church, which she saw firsthand during an internship with U.S. Conference of
that the church is involved and wants to be involved does give me hope,"
she said, adding that church leaders "won't be quiet about it and are
willing to stand up for us and with us."
who has spent most of her life in this country, considers herself to be
American and said she is thankful for the opportunities here that she knows she
would not have had in Mexico.
"I love this country,"
she said, adding: "I do want to stay here and I have all the faith in God
that that will be the case."
McGuire, president of Trinity, compared the first class of Dreamers to graduate
from the university to Trinity's first graduating class in 1900 because both
had "vision for how a great college education can change the fortunes
of their children and families."
In an email
to CNS, she said the Dreamer graduates were a "force for solidarity" as
students of all backgrounds, faculty, staff and alumnae offered personal
support and did advocacy work. She said the immigrant students were role models
for other students coping with discrimination and setbacks.
presence also helped the entire school community to sharpen its "sense of
mission and commitment to challenge injustice," she said.
- - -
Zimmermann on Twitter: @carolmaczim- - -Copyright © 2018 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. www.catholicnews.com. All rights reserved. Republishing or redistributing of CNS content, including by framing or similar means without prior permission, is prohibited. You may link to stories on our public site. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To request permission for republishing or redistributing of CNS content, please contact permissions at email@example.com.